Cardiac catheterization is used to access the heart and coronary arteries
through a vessel and examine them. By doing this we can identify any pathological changes apparent in the coronary arteries, valves of the heart, heart muscle tissue, or other cardiac structures (congenital heart defects).
This procedure is typically performed using a local anesthetic, which means you can watch the examination while it is happening on a screen if you like.
Electrophysiologic Study (EP)
An EP study is used to diagnose arrhythmias. It uses a special catheter that is usually advanced to the heart through a groin vein to record the electric signals in the heart. This catheter can also be used to stimulate the heart to find out how arrhythmias are triggered and where exactly they can be localized.
This examination is typically done only with a local anesthetic, making it
hardly noticeable for the patient.
Angiology is the science of the body’s system of blood vessels and the diseases it undergoes. These include disorders such as stenosis, occlusion, dilatation, or inflammation of the arteries, veins or lymph vessels.
The ankle-brachial index is determined by a simple blood pressure reading and Doppler sonography. Systolic blood pressure (the “higher” blood pressure reading) is taken at the ankle and the upper arm while the patient is lying down.
The measurement is done while Doppler sonography of the corresponding limb artery is done. If the blood pressure reading taken at the ankle is lower than the reading taken at the arm, it is highly probable that the patient has an arterial circulation disorder of the lower limbs. This index also tells us about the severity of peripheral artery disease and the patient’s overall cardiovascular risk profile.
Vessel Ultrasound (Doppler Sonography)
Ultrasound is used to produce images of the vessels from the outside to examine the vessel walls and circulation. The frequencies of the sound waves received vary according to blood flow velocity and direction. This technique allows us to detect abnormally narrow vessel segments and quantify their severity very accurately.
An oscillogram measures arterial blood circulation in the hands, legs and feet to help diagnose blood flow disorders. The level of increase in leg circumference caused by the pulse in the arteries is recorded. This is a very low-impact test on the patient and is associated with exceptionally low risk.